Refugees and Online Education

Online learning is considered a solution to helping disadvantaged populations such as refugees access higher education. The specific barriers to accessing higher education among refugees in host countries include legal status, language, missing documents, lack of prior learning recognition, and entry qualifications set by various higher education institutions (Halkic & Arnold, 2019). With the identified barriers, refugees are particularly more likely to benefit from engagement in online education because it offers flexibility in terms of time and place, requires no entry qualifications, and no tuition fee is needed (Halkic & Arnold, 2019). Online learning for refugees in non-war countries such as Germany is conducted through Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which offer individualized education and enhance educational equity. However, some marginalized groups within the refugee population, such as women, prefer offline education because it allows them to move away from adverse camp life conditions (Halkic & Arnold, 2019).


Halkic, B., & Arnold, P. (2019). Refugees and online education: Student perspectives on need and support in the context of (online) higher education. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(3), 345-364.

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